mamluk sultanate social structure The Politics of the Mamluk Sultanate: A Review Essay In the simplest terms, politics is the struggle for power, and in that sense the Mamluk Sultanate was a truly Hobbesian world, in which the price of defeat was a loss not merely of status, influence, and wealth, but very often of life itself. 2019. Michael Chamberlain has done much to focus our attention on the elite household as the basic unit of social social structure of the inhabitants. mamluks' multiple adventures very accessible and intelligible in a kind of biographical longue durée structure that moves from origins in Central-Asian enslavement, slave trade and Syro-Egyptian socialisation, over practices of local and regional empowerment and social distinction, to strategies of social and Looking for an examination copy? This title is not currently available for examination. Mamluk, slave soldier, a member of one of the armies of slaves that won political control of several Muslim states. This construction of a new research infrastructure for historical research operates on four different levels. Delhi sultanate, was in north India from the 13th to the 16th century. At this ogous to offices of the Mamluk sultanate, and the grandees whom the Ottomans in- stalled in these offices were analogous to the Mamluk amirs of the sultanate. The informa-tion contained in the waqf documents not only refers to architecture, but frequently has a socio-historical aspect to it as well. Turk came their court language was farsi . 14 This is true even for the idea that Mamluk politics of revenue assignment and even Mamluk power itself were exercised at the level of the elite household. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid Dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Mar 18, 2021 · In India with advent of mamluk . The Mamluk Sultanate ( Arabic: سلطنة المماليك ‎‎ Sulṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz. 95; J. On the one hand, it is the heir of a political and military tradition that goes back hundreds of years, and brought this to a high pitch that enabled astounding . The victory prevented a Mongol invasion of the Holy . The Mamluk Sultanate represents an extremely interesting case study to examine social, economic and cultural developments in the transition into the rapidly changing modern world. World Heritage Encyclopedia, the . , Social Life. Chinese Social Structure. At this Mamluk commanders to rule through Ayyubid puppets such as Sayf ad-Din al-Adil (d. To understand the relationship that existed between Jew and Muslim during the Mamluk period, which in the Holy Land began in 1291, forty-one years after the start of the first Mamluk sultanate, one . They would . There was little change in the structure of the Hindu society during this period. 1 Above all, the practice of recruiting boy ansd young men from the Caucasus as military slaves, or mamluks, and training them as soldiers in households geare tdo that pur- The Mamluk or Memluk refers to the Mamluk sultanate that reigned from 1250 to 1517. ” The Bruce D. Egypt - Egypt - The Mamluk and Ottoman periods (1250–1800): During the Mamluk period Egypt became the unrivaled political, economic, and cultural centre of the eastern Arabic-speaking zone of the Muslim world. Mamluk authorities and Anatolian realities: Jānibak al-Ṣūfī, sultan al-Ashraf Barsbāy, and the story of a social network in the Mamluk/Anatolian frontier zone, 1435–1438 - Volume 26 Issue 4 The most enduring testament to the Mamluk sultanate is its architecture. Textually, the "city" (madīnah) is a fluid term, with the functions and structure of village and city often overlapping. at the forefront of Mamluk politics—the reign of Shajar al-Durr, the periodic royal campaigns against vice, the processions of royal trousseaux, and the arrest of Ibn Taymīyah for his views on divorce are a few examples. Opting for defining the city by its social complexity, the author surveys the development of the three urban centers at the center of the book - Jerusalem, Safad, and Tripoli - through the early Mamluk era. structure ever to be introduced into the fabric of the city. And while they maintained their veneer as pious soldiers known for their endowments to religious causes, the Mamluks also tended to opulently flaunt their wealth and high-status through ritzy attires and penchant for ‘forbidden’ entertainment – thus . Encyclopaedism of the Mamluk Period is the work of an engaged and energetic scholar. . The seclusion of women and the wearing of purdah became common . archaeology is effective in addressing long-term social and economic . See full list on althistory. Social and Cultural Issues 1 Already Rich? Yet ‘Greed Deranged Him’ Elite Status and Criminal Complicity in the Mamluk Sultanate 3 Carl F. History and Society during the Mamluk Period (1250–1517) This volume is a collection of research essays submitted by fellows of the Annemarie Schimmel Kolleg, an Advanced Center of Research in Mamluk Studies. Mamluk sultanate, and as such has few prede-cessors in European languages. Mamluks: lt;p|>|Mamluk| (|Arabic|: |مملوك| |mamlūk| (singular), |مماليك| |mamālīk| (plural), meaning "prop. It considers the various economic and political challenges that the Mamluk sultanate faced and the ways that the rulers dealt with them, including the recurrent waves of plague, gold shortage, and currency devaluation. Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) The Mamluk Sultanate ( Arabic: سلطنة المماليك ‎, romanized : Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant and Hejaz that established itself as a caliphate. pouring at every social, geographic, and topological scale, the. Under the leadership of Selim the Grim (r. Book bindings made in Egypt and Syria during the reign of the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1516) represent the pinnacle of Islamic book design. 15 Combining Jane Hathaway’s definition of a bayt (household) for an Ottoman . The most enduring testament to the Mamluk sultanate is its architecture. org providing details of the course you . The present article will endeavor to show that aspects of food preparation and consumption identified especially with the Mamluk ruling elite were used in their dialogue with the general population to cultivate their image as agents of Muslim The Mamluk Sultanate represents an extremely interesting case study to examine social, economic and cultural developments in the transition into the rapidly changing modern world. The battle with the infidel Mongols was a holy war. Most notably, mamluk factions seized the sultanate for themselves in Egypt and Syria in a period known as the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). “Travel by Sea and Land Between the Maghrib and the Mamluk Empire. Amazon. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Jan 01, 2013 · 16) J. Oct 02, 2012 · The Mamluk Sultanate represents an extremely interesting case study to examine social, economic and cultural developments in the transition into the rapidly changing modern world. Mamluk history is divided into two periods based on the origins of their . The Mamluk Sultanate famously beat back the Mongols and fought the Crusaders. 3 Winslow Clifford, "State Formation and the Structure of Politics in Mamluk Syro-Egypt, 648–741 Through his skillful application of social theory, Clifford succeeded in providing highly convincing evidence that the Mamluk Sultanate did not - as was maintained for a long time - constitute a static form of "oriental despotism" but was, rather, a highly differentiated society. mamluks' multiple adventures very accessible and intelligible in a kind of biographical longue durée structure that moves from origins in Central-Asian enslavement, slave trade and Syro-Egyptian socialisation, over practices of local and regional empowerment and social distinction, to strategies of social and The successful reproduction of the Mamluk amir Manjak's household suggests above all how such identities tend to be cut across by all kinds of other identities and interests, especially - in the case of the sultanate at least - those of the leading households that defined the social and cultural fault lines along which the elites and their . He was born in the prestigious palace of Manjak al-Yūsufī in Cairo. Mamluk Sultanate - A political unit in Egypt established by Mamluks - the word mamluk means slave. The Mamluk Prosopography Project (MPP) is an open access digital humanities database for the study of elite social groups, networks and social/cultural practice in the Late Medieval Syro-Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate (13th-15th centuries). tified a large and well-built early Mamluk structure, Qutb al-Din Aibak, founder of the Slave Dynasty Locator Map of the Mamluk Dynasty The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (Persian: سلطنت مملوک‎), (Urdu: غلام خاندان‎) was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-. xiv The manner by which the Mamluk sultanate was established, gradually, with an attempt to preserve a monarchical role for an Ayyubid puppet, may suggest that the Mamluk emirs were satisfied with their current situation. Mamluk sultanate (1250–60), soon the essentially cen- . Other slave soldiers Most notably, mamluk factions seized the sultanate for themselves in Egypt and Syria in a period known as the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). Mamluk authorities and Anatolian realities: Jānibak al-Ṣūfī, sultan al-Ashraf Barsbāy, and the story of a social network in the Mamluk/Anatolian frontier zone, 1435–1438 - Volume 26 Issue 4 Nov 15, 2010 · The most enduring testament to the Mamluk Sultanate is its architecture. Social and economic developments are examined in their places, as in the accounts of the fiscal rawks and the consequences of the Black Death. May 29, 2020 · The Mamluk Sultanate and its Neighbors: Economic, Social and Cultural Entanglements (Mamluk Studies) (Göttingen, 2019), pp. Looking for an examination copy? This title is not currently available for examination. The sultanate was formed as a result of the seizure of power in Cairo by the Mamluks, who overthrew the Ayyubid dynasty. Petry 2 Usages of Kinship Terminology during the Mamluk Sultanate and the Notion of the ‘Mamlūk Family’ 16 Koby Yosef 3 Medieval Middle Eastern Court Taste The Mamluk Case 76 Limor Yungman The Mamluk Sultanate represents an extremely interesting case study to examine social, economic and cultural developments in the transition into the rapidly changing modern world. It covers three themes, which correspond to the research agenda of the final three academic years of the Annemarie Schimmel Kolleg. 3 Winslow Clifford, "State Formation and the Structure of Politics in Mamluk Syro-Egypt, 648–741 social structure of the inhabitants. The pluralist institutional structure of the mamluk sultanate incited them to fight over the honors and the resources of the kingdom, while the economic crisis context at the turn of . This ambiguity has led to a variety of opinions about the nature of the Mamluk Sultanate in scholarly works on Mamluk history. 1248), and many of his successors. Patronage, Conflict and Mamluk Socio-political Culture, 1341-1382 (Leiden: E. Several document types illustrate this point, including orders (taḏkira pl. Cairo remained the capital of the sultanate and its social, economic and administrative center, with the Cairo Citadel serving as the sultan's headquarters. Historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamlūk rule into two periods—one covering 1250 . Sep 09, 2021 · Mamluk bindings. 2Robert Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamluk Sultanate 1250–1382 (London, 1986), Introduction, ii. While . French. in - Buy The Mamluk Sultanate from the Perspective of Regional and World History: Economic, Social and Cultural Development in an Era of Increasing . THE MAMLUK DOMES OF CAIRO Amir Ahmad al-Mihmindar, 1325 Tashtimur, 1334 A workshop sponsored by the Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at MIT AKPIA@MIT SATURDAY, OCTOBER 29, 2005 10:00 to 1:00 and 2:00 to 5:00 MIT 6-120 Jun 22, 2005 · In 1211, the Mamluk commander of the Muslim forces in India, Qutbuddin Aibak, proclaimed himself sultan, becoming, in effect, the first independent Sultan-e-Hind. The Americans radically altered the social structure in the Philippines after they took over from Spain in terms of socioeconomic equality. ISBN 9781107048843 The Mamluk City in the Middle East is an interdisciplinary study of ur-ban history in Syria, Bilād al-Shām, during the Mamluk Sultanate (1260-1517). Van Steenbergen, Order out of Chaos. Official documents from the Mamluk period provide data on the historical-geography of the Sultanate. The armies of the Ottoman Empire destroyed the Mamluk Kingdom in a few short months during 922-23/1517. Hathaway, The Politics of Households in Ottoman Egypt: The Rise of the Qazdaglis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997): 19-20; Chamberlain, Knowledge and Social Practice: 41; M. English is used when calling us. The subservient position of women also continued and the practice of sati was widely prevalent. ” In The Mamluk Sultanate from the Perspective of Regional and World History: Economic, Social and Cultural Developments in an Era of Increasing International Interaction and Competition, edited by Reuven Amitai and Stephan Conermann, 283–307 . Mamluk commanders to rule through Ayyubid puppets such as Sayf ad-Din al-Adil (d. An observer at the time would assume that this Ottoman victory . Join Head of Conservation, Kristine Rose-Beers, as she introduces these books which represent a unique binding structure. 215 – 256. The new Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, under the leadership of Baibars, defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in September 1260 – was coincided with Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. J. The Mamluk or Memluk refers to the Mamluk sultanate that reigned from 1250 to 1517. ogous to offices of the Mamluk sultanate an,d the grandees whom the Ottomans in-stalled in these offices were analogou tos the Mamluk amirs of the sultanate. Feb 19, 2018 · The Mamluk Saved the Muslim World from Mongols. The Mamluk Sultanate as a Military Patronage State 195 and his successors, is not new to Mamluk studies. Christ , Georg , “ The Sultans and the Sea: Mamluk Coastal Defence, Dormant Navy and Delegation of Maritime Policing (14th and Early 15th Centuries) ”, in Stephan Conermann and Reuven Amitai , eds. Traditional caste system with the Brahmins on the upper strata of the society was prevalent. Social Social classes & social hierarchy Who has power in society? Gender roles and relations/patriarchy Family and kinship The ruler of the Seljuk Empire was the sultan. Their social effect is that language of India changed such that any turk and farsi can understand by lexican and they came with new cousins like pulaw or pilaf that spread. in Mamluk rule with the sultanate trading hands no less than five times. This chapter examines the transformations in the state structure and organization of power that occurred in Egypt and Syria in the late Mamluk period. The Mamluk City in the Middle East: History, Culture, and Urban Landscape Nimrod Luz Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, XV + 265 pages. tified a large and well-built early Mamluk structure, parcel of inveterate Mamluk factionalism. This was not uncommon in the Mamluk period where sultans and amirs rose to and successively lost power in very short spans of time. Their decoration is refined and complex. The slave dynasty (1206-90 AD) Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10 AD) * After the death of Muhammad Ghori, his slave Qutubuddin Aibak founder of slave dynasty in 1206 AD. in. The emirs were the politico military elite of the mamluk sultanate since the mid-13 century. On the one hand, it is the heir of a political and. 918-26/1512-20), they eliminated virtually all Mamluk resistance, occupied Egypt, and established their own government in Cairo. Download this stock image: Mamluk-style ornament at the entrance of the Madrasa Al-Ashrafiyya an Islamic structure built in 1480-1482 by the Mamluk sultan al-Ashraf Qaytbay on the western side of the Temple Mount known as The Noble Sanctuary and to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif in the Old City East Jerusalem Israel - 2F7MCX5 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos . correspondence between a given social structure and the structure of symbols by which it is expressed. Read The Mamluk Sultanate from the Perspective of Regional and World History: Economic, Social and Cultural Development in an Era of Increasing . They were of varied ancestry but were often Kipchak Turks/Cumans, depending on the period and region in question. com Under the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo, Mamluks were purchased while still young males. Mar 12, 2021 · Study of the history and culture of the Mamluk Sultanate has suffered from Western scholars’ deeply engrained abhorrence of perceived ‘slave rule’. Jun 17, 2019 · The Mamluk Sultanate represents an extremely interesting case study to examine social, economic and cultural developments in the transition into the rapidly changing modern world. The Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517) emerged during the decline of the Ayyubid realm when Turkic Mamluks (originally slave–mercenary soldiers in the Ayyubid military organization) eventually overthrew the last Ayyubid sultan in Cairo and established their own rule. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Building continued under the last Mamluk sultan, Qansuh al-Ghawri (r. Not only do Mamluk buildings embody one of the most outstanding medieval architectural traditions, Mamluk architecture is actually a key to the social history of the period. The Mamluk sultanate (1250 . During his reign, Iltutmish extended the screen and prayer hall on both sides of the west end of t he Qutb mosque and added surrounding colonnades that, in effect, enclosed the original mosque. It is strongest in its presentation of leading individuals, and in analysis of the structure of dominant groups. The Mamluks’ opportunity to overthrow their masters came at the end of the 1240s, a time when the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, set up by Saladin in the 1170s, had reached a modus vivendi with the Crusader states; skirmishing, rather than outright . After completion of this training, the Mamluk would serve in the Sultanate’s military, and go through the manumission initiation to make them non-slave forces. Nov 07, 2019 · Baadj, Amar S. Brill, 2006): 76-100, 94-8, esp. 1 Above all, the practice of recruiting boys and young men from the Caucasus as military slaves, or mamluks, and training them as soldiers in households geared to that pur- Oct 02, 2012 · The Mamluk Sultanate represents an extremely interesting case study to examine social, economic and cultural developments in the transition into the rapidly changing modern world. 1 Above all, the practice of recruiting boys and young men from the Caucasus as military slaves, or mamluks, and training them as soldiers in households geared to that pur- The Mamluks, who descended from non-Arab slaves who were naturalised to serve and fight for ruling Arab dynasties, are revered as some of the greatest warriors the world has ever known. Although the word “mamluk” translates as “one who is owned”, the Mamluk soldiers proved otherwise, gaining a powerful military standing in various Muslim societies, particularly in Egypt. Jun 13, 2021 · The inevitable occurred and these slave soldiers known as the Mamluks, grabbed the reins of power in 1250 signifying the start of their sultanate. “The tribute paid to the Mamluk Sultanate, 1426-1517: The . 17 Such an approach neces-sarily assumes that the forces that gave rise to the Faqaris and Qasimis were identical to those that shaped the political culture of the Mamluk sultanate and that, in fact, Mamluk paradigms are all that we need to understand these two enormous, extraordinarily long-lived groups. and Competition: 17 (Mamluk Studies) book online at best prices in India on Amazon. However, in reality, the medieval Islamic world had a distinctive basis of authority, especially in the Mamluk Sultanate where legitimacy of rule was a prize to be won, like any other. * He became the “Foremost of Hindustan”. org and *. Toggle navigation Under the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo, Mamluks were purchased while still young males. More specifically, it refers to: Khwarazmian dynasty in Persian (1077–1231) Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) (1206–1290) Mamluk Sultanate . edu for free. The successful reproduction of the Mamluk amir Manjak's household suggests above all how such identities tend to be cut across by all kinds of other identities and interests, especially - in the case of the sultanate at least - those of the leading households that defined the social and cultural fault lines along which the elites and their . They were raised in the barracks of the Citadel of Cairo. One belonged to the Looking for an examination copy? This title is not currently available for examination. Mar 26, 2015 · The Mamluks were mainly composed of slaves born into servitude and who underwent a formal military training (Amitai 2). View Intellctual and social history of the Mamluk Period Research Papers on Academia. In . If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *. fandom. Mamluk Studies Published by The Middle East Documentation Center (MEDOC) The University of Chicago Mamluk Studies Review is an annual refereed journal devoted to the study of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and Syria (648-922/1250-1517). Maqrizi notes repeated transfers of amiral ranks in 1303, following the rise in status of certain amirs and the sudden deaths of others. kastatic. The present article will endeavor to show that aspects of food preparation and consumption identified especially with the Mamluk ruling elite were used in their dialogue with the general population to cultivate their image as agents of Muslim strong sultanate, and the sultan reassumed his function as primus inter pares, in the Mamluk factional rule. This Mamluk dynasty lasted until 1290. His father Taghrībirdī al-Yashbughāwī al-Ẓāhirī, a former mamluk of sultan Barqūq, was consecutively appointed as the commander in chief of the Egyptian armies in 810/1407 then the governor of Damascus in 813 . They were supposed to protect Islam against the infidel conquerors. org are unblocked. When Iltutmish became the new sultan of the Mamluk dynasty in 1211, he made Delhi the capital of the sultanate. In Cairo, the complex of Qa’itbay in the Northern Cemetery (1472–74) is the best known and admired structure of this period. ogous to offices of the Mamluk sultanate, and the grandees whom the Ottomans in- stalled in these offices were analogous to the Mamluk amirs of the sultanate. Because of their isolated social status (no social ties or political affiliations) and their austere military training, they were trusted to be loyal to their rulers. The goals of Mamluk Studies Review are to take stock of scholarship devoted to the Mamluk era, nurture The emirs were the politico military elite of the mamluk sultanate since the mid-13 century. See Delhi Sultanate for more information. Chapoutot-Remadi, “Liens propres et . The Mamluk sultanate was thus al-Sh ām’s longest successive period in which . Sep 05, 2019 · As we mentioned before, the Sultan’s Mamluks were accustomed to settling in Cairo, the capital and the political center of the Sultanate. The Mamluk sultan was the ultimate government authority, while he delegated power to provincial governors known as nuwwab as-saltana (deputy sultans, sing. Mar 01, 2016 · The Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517) emerged during the decline of the Ayyubid realm when Turkic Mamluks (originally slave–mercenary soldiers in the Ayyubid military organization) eventually overthrew the last Ayyubid sultan in Cairo and established their own rule. to emphasize the social structure and processes that led to the modern city and the rise of the . [147] Authority of the sultan. Craig Prize is given annually by Mamlūk Studies Review for the best dissertation on a topic related to the Mamluk Sultanate submitted to an . Ibn Taghr Birdī was a fifteenth-century Mamluk historian. kasandbox. Violence, however, was never the true cement of the early Mamluk state. Learn about the social hierarchies in medieval societies under Muslim rule. Apr 23, 2013 · This allows him to offer a much nuanced discussion of the text’s genesis, structure, and function. Apr 23, 2009 · During their rule in Egypt and Syria (1250–1517), the Mamluks showed a certain ambiguity in their attitude toward the sultanate including its rules of succession and the ruler's source of power. taḏākir),1 reports and court cases. parcel of inveterate Mamluk factionalism. 1501–17), who commissioned his own complex (1503–5); however, construction methods reflected the finances of the state. To these we can add inscriptions samāʿāt and colophons. To register your interest please contact collegesales@cambridge. Supporting the Mamluk sultanate were such social institutions as the fortress, the palace, mosques and religious academies, which were patronized by sultans, princes, governors and other powerful individuals who increasingly, as time went on, were themselves Mamluks. As chance would have it, the two documents at our disposal are both from the later period of the Mamluk sultanate. However, if you are interested in the title for your course we can consider offering an examination copy. Under the Ayyubid sultanate, Mamluk generals used their power to establish a dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria from 1250 to 1517. THE SULTANATE Social conditions in the Mamluk state remained unchanged throughout the auton-omous rule of the Mamluks; its ruling military elite never ceased to augment its ranks with new recruits and to restrict its membership to mamluks. The goals of Mamluk Studies Review are to take stock of scholarship devoted to the Mamluk era, nurture Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king; also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves. Yet, by defining the Mamluk state entirely in terms of its externalized military structure, scholars have obfuscated the real internal sociopolitical structures which in fact integrated and sustained the late medieval Syro-Egyptian state, including as a military power. THE MAMLUK DOMES OF CAIRO Amir Ahmad al-Mihmindar, 1325 Tashtimur, 1334 A workshop sponsored by the Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at MIT AKPIA@MIT SATURDAY, OCTOBER 29, 2005 10:00 to 1:00 and 2:00 to 5:00 MIT 6-120 Textually, the "city" (madīnah) is a fluid term, with the functions and structure of village and city often overlapping. Symbolic of this development was the reestablishment in 1261 under the Mamluk rulers of the Abbasid caliphate—destroyed by the Mongols in their sack of Baghdad three years earlier . Qutb al-Din Aibak, founder of the Slave Dynasty Locator Map of the Mamluk Dynasty The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (Persian: سلطنت مملوک‎), (Urdu: غلام خاندان‎) was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-. strong sultanate, and the sultan reassumed his function as primus inter pares, in the Mamluk factional rule. (703) 369-2100 or (703) 491-2222. The Mamluk sultan Baybars constructed a hippodrome in Cairo to stage these games and polo matches. Confucian principles a. Even after the Ottoman occupation, the Mamluk integrated into the social fabric of Egypt by marrying into the local population, assuming Arabic names and assimilating to the contemporary Arabic culture at the time (Sanders 29). The Mamluk class came to an end under the rule of Muhammad Ali in Egypt. • the social and economic reconstruction of Jordan. The Mamluk Sultanate . One belonged to the The Mamluk Sultanate was in Egypt and lasted until 1517. History, Culture, and the Urban Landscape, Houses and Residential Solutions in the Cities of alSham, The Mamluk City in the Middle East: History, Culture, and the Urban Landscape, Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. governing structure. loyalty . mamluk sultanate social structure